Brunei celebrates its independence day on 23 February, a day also known as “Hari Nasional” or “National Day.”
Brunei is located on the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia and is surrounded by Malaysia and Indonesia. Currently, it is a monarchy ruled by the Sultan and applies Sharia and English common law.
The country’s ancient history dates back to the 7th century with the Srivijaya Empire, predominantly Hindu. In the 15th century, the rulers converted to Islam, which has remained the dominant religion ever since.
The Bruneian Empire emerged as a significant power in the Malay Archipelago under the leadership of Sultan Bolkiah. In the 19th century, its domain began to decline, and Brunei became a British protectorate in 1888.
During World War II, Brunei was briefly occupied by the Japanese, but it was liberated by Australian forces in June 1945.
In 1959, Brunei adopted a new constitution declaring it a self-governing state, with foreign affairs, security, and defence matters under British control.
The country gained complete independence from the United Kingdom on 1 January 1984, although the control of the state was handed over weeks later, marking 23 February as the official day Brunei became a sovereign state.